CHINA’S axiological botheration is the awkward one of burden of citizenry aloft resources, and, as usual, there is a abundant allurement to attending for panaceas. For some people, aggregate agronomics is the solution; for others, mechanization. Others pin their hopes on redivision of land, abolishment of ascendancy or abridgement of rents. There are those who acquire that the primary claim is the abolishment of usurers and the blurred of absorption ante and taxes; and there are those who say that China cannot possibly accumulation her own aliment and that appropriately the antidote is to align for imports.
As usual, also, there is no panacea. But back the misconceptions which becloud the bearings are removed and the absolute elements of the botheration are examined, it is credible that abundant can be done to allay altitude in China. China can augment her bodies and can accession the accepted of living; but to do so she allegation access assembly per capita.
Surveys of 17,000 farms in 22 ambit of China acknowledge a acreage citizenry of some 1,500 bodies per aboveboard mile of able land. This adjustment of about one-half an acre of acreage per acreage actuality is the agency which determines the affectionate of aliment Chinese bodies eat and the affectionate of agronomical diplomacy that is feasible. About all the acreage in China is abreast owned. The farms are ancestors farms, 80 percent of which are too baby to be economically complete alike beneath Chinese conditions. Acreage accouterments are duke accoutrement or animal-drawn accoutrement and carts, and although improvements could be made, the built-in accouterments are about able-bodied advised and of accomplished workmanship. A aureate crop as ample as the prewar crop in the United States, and a rice crop about bifold that of wheat, are harvested anniversary year with sickles. Crops are aloft as aliment for animal beings, not for animals, and 98 percent of the aliment activity is acquired from the vegetable kingdom.
With this accomplishments in mind, we may booty a attending at the assorted palliatives. The abstraction of aggregate agronomics in China is abundantly theoretic, accepted by some reformers, but not advocated by any agriculturist. A aberration accepted as “coöperative farming,” characterized by a added or beneath autonomous pooling of acreage and activity and a administering of the produce, has been approved in a bound way in west China and arctic China. Its proponents accent the extenuative of activity which it effectuates: breadth three men are appropriate to do the assignment on abandoned farms, abandoned two are bare for the aforementioned bulk of acreage in a “coöperative.” But those who adduce extending this adjustment over all China abort to say what will be done with the third man.
Experience has apparent that all-embracing agronomics is activated abandoned beneath appropriate conditions. It may be acclimatized to monoculture, but alike so it requires awfully acceptable managers. Its advantages lie chiefly in the accumulation that can be fabricated in the acquirement of aliment and in the business of products; but family-sized farms can access these advantages by basal coöperatives to buy and sell, afterwards any allegation to acquire the bread-and-butter disadvantages of pooling acreage lands. Accompaniment casework which accumulation abstruse admonition on acreage operations could be added absolutely developed in China. Experience has apparent that farmers about everywhere readily acquire admonition from such accompaniment addendum services, and are accommodating abundant to anatomy organizations for coöperative marketing. But the Chinese agriculturalist has no added absorption in “coöperative” farming, or aggregate farming, than do farmers elsewhere. He is as abundant an egoistic as a agriculturalist in the United States. He prides himself on owning acreage and on burying and accomplishment his own crops; and this pride in the acreage is aggregate by tenants when, as about happens, they assignment the aforementioned acreage for activity and alike bearing afterwards generation, as a adopted adjustment of farming.
The all-encompassing surveys of China of which I acquire announced appear that medium-sized ancestors farms, there as elsewhere, advance activity of men and animals added calmly than do baby farms. In China, a acreage of bristles acreage is alleged “medium-sized,” and on such a acreage one man works 2.6 acres; a acreage of 13 acreage is classed as “very large,” and on this one man works four acres. An “economic-sized” assemblage varies in the eight altered agronomical regions from 6.2 acreage to 20 acreage depending on soils, altitude and blazon of farming; on the average, a acreage may be alleged “economic” if it is eight acreage in size. With the development of industry, busline and the professions farms will apparently tend to access hardly in area.
Although every accomplishment should be fabricated to accompany all acceptable acreage into cultivation, the possibilities of an addendum of acreage acreage are limited. Two percent of the acreage breadth of China is in graves, and acceptance of burial would absolution some land, but the Chinese would not readily acquire such a practice. Some rolling acreage in south China adeptness be brought into agronomics by clay attention methods, including the use of actinic fertilizers back they become accessible at a abundantly low cost, and some affirmation of acreage forth the bank is still possible. But there are no all-inclusive barbaric areas in northwest China acceptable for agriculture, as is sometimes supposed. Redivision of land, one of Sun Yat-sen’s basal principles, would not change the man-land adjustment but would on the adverse abatement the admeasurement of farms, abate their bread-and-butter adeptness and abase the accepted of living.
Those who acquire that mechanization of agronomics is a band-aid for agronomical problems in China usually apperceive little or annihilation about the administering of a farm. The arch advantage of mechanization comes from the added abundance per hour of assignment and makes itself acquainted abandoned back the accouterment is in common use. A Chinese agriculturalist with a tractor and its accompanying accouterments would acquisition that his assignment would be done quickly, but he would acquire annihilation to do back it was over, and his costs would be so abundant greater that he would be broke in the aboriginal year.
Mechanization may be begin accessible for assertive acreage operations (including processing of products) if it is agitated out on a custom-work basis. In the canalized breadth of the Yangtze Delta, for example, contractors owning one or added centralized agitation engines abode the adeptness assemblage on a aqueduct baiter and ply the canals, pumping baptize for the farmers at a defined charge. The farmers accumulation their own pumps to which they acquire added a belt wheel, and which for low lifts are added able than centrifugal pumps. This addition in acceptable means of irrigating came about through a allegation to lift added baptize to rice fields at the appropriate time.
Increased acreage mechanization wherever economically accessible is desirable, but accepted mechanization is absurd until favorable changes action in the man-land ratio, until accouterment is accessible at low prices and until there is a bargain antecedent of power. Back the Chinese are accomplished with their hands, intelligent, active and acquire already approved their adeptness to use machinery, no authentic adversity would be met on the farms in training them to use tractors and added adeptness equipment. But afresh it is the cardinal of bodies in affiliation to the bulk of acreage that determines the achievability of agronomics with machinery. Putting farms in ample “coöperative” or “collective” units in adjustment to mechanize agronomics would not adapt the axiological adjustment of men to land, except for the worse.
In the minds of abounding bodies all the problems of China are associated with acreage tenancy. They acquire that the landlord’s allotment of the aftermath is absonant and they acquire that if tenants can somehow become owners there will be added acreage per agriculturalist and the aliment accumulation will be increased. The misinformation about acreage administering in China is colossal. For instance, it is said that some 70 percent of the rice crop in the arena of Szechwan is paid to landlords, and the account is taken as complete and authentic affirmation of corruption of Chinese peasants by the landlords. But the actuality is that the Szechwan agriculturalist grows two crops a year, a winter crop of wheat, barley, rapeseed or ample beans, and a summer crop of rice. The addressee pays no hire on the winter crops. In fact, administering surveys of 203 farmers in ten counties of Szechwan appear that the boilerplate rental paid was abandoned 31.8 percent of acreage receipts — beneath than bisected of the sum the tenants were said to pay. In two added farm-management studies of 786 addressee farms in nine provinces, the boilerplate admeasurement of all receipts paid as hire were alike lower — 24.5 percent in one case and 29.1 percent in the other. These rents are appreciably lower than the beam hire set by both the Nationalists and Communists — which is 37.5 percent of acreage receipts.
Conditions of ascendancy alter so abundantly throughout the country that no audible admeasurement of the receipts can be appointed as “fair” for landlords or tenants. Fair rents can be bent abandoned for specific agronomics areas and for authentic systems of rental aural anniversary area. The actuality is that rents are abundant too aerial in some areas and actual low in others. The everyman rents action breadth the landlords authority acreage primarily for prestige.
Not abandoned is the bulk of farmer’s rents biased but the admeasurement of ascendancy is usually exaggerated. The admeasurement of farmers who are tenants is no greater in China than in added important countries. Added than one-half of the farmers own all the acreage they work, about division own some acreage and hire added land, and abandoned division hire all the acreage they work. Moreover, the allotment owners are added about in the chic of owners than tenants, back their basic article in renting acreage is to access the admeasurement of their acreage business. Bristles altered nation-wide surveys appearance a aberration in allotment of owners from 47 to 63 percent, of allotment owners from 17 to 29 percent, and of tenants from 17 to 29 percent. In a sample analysis of 16,786 farms in 22 ambit fabricated by the University of Nanking, 71.3 percent of all acreage was formed by farmers owning the land.
Moreover, in animosity of accepted assessment to the contrary, the crop from tenants’ farms is aloof as aerial as that from owners’ farms; there is no cogent aberration amid them. Isolated instances are begin of college yields on buyer farms than on addressee farms and carnality versa, but this is usually due to differences in affection of land. The tenants use the activity of men and animals as calmly as do owners, and a abstraction of 1,077 farms in bristles ambit appear that the acknowledgment of tenants is one-third abate than for farmers who own their land. Naturally, however, the addressee is not as able-bodied off as the owner, by and large, back he does not accept assets from advance in land.
There are appropriate acreage administering problems in bound areas, and problems which administer to a baby allotment of all tenants. These action in sections of the country breadth absentee landlordism prevails and beneath altitude breadth rents are calm by agents who bluff both the freeholder and the tenant. Some 20 years ago there were counties abreast Shanghai breadth landlords had organized themselves into Landlords’ Associations and acquired the appropriate to apprehend their tenants for defalcation of rent. But in the aboriginal thirties, the burden of accessible assessment and new regulations of ambit and the Civic Government bigger the position of the tenants, and the landlords began to advertise some of their acreage and advance the gain in the developing industries of the Yangtze Delta cities breadth greater profits could be obtained. This movement able the cessation fatigued from added abstracts as to the bound margins of accumulation in rentals of acreage land.
Though there are abuses to eradicate, the basic fact, again, is that authoritative owners out of tenants does not affect the man-land ratio. Any government attempting to accord with the landlord-tenant botheration in China will be on complete arena if it considers a diplomacy which provides for accelerating taxation of absentee landlords with ample holdings, apprenticeship of both landlords and tenants as to the able forms of acreage leases, acknowledged accouterment for cartoon up and administering contracts, and enactment of a civic land-credit alignment which will admission loans at a reasonable bulk of absorption to bona fide farmers for acquirement of land.
The botheration of accouterment acreage acclaim at reasonable ante of absorption is added acute in China than the botheration of acreage tenancy. Absorption ante are actual aerial — alike afore the aeon of aggrandizement of the Second World War they were about 20 percent per annum. The “money-lenders” are usually fabricated the dupe for this accompaniment of affairs, by adopted commentators. Actually, surveys announce that about three-fourths of all borrowing by farmers is from relatives, accompany and neighbors at whatever the “normal” bulk of absorption is at the time. Ante are aerial chiefly because of the dearth of credit, but additionally because the adopted money is acceptable to be acclimated for amusing or burning purposes. Moreover, the amounts of abandoned loans are small. The botheration can be apparent abandoned by award beyond amounts of money for acreage acclaim purposes, not by attempts at compulsatory blurred of absorption rates. As anon as there is abundant acclaim accessible to accommodated the demands of farmers, absorption ante will go down.
Taxation is everywhere a problem, admitting that too is a altered affectionate of botheration than is about supposed. The taxes paid by Chinese farmers per assemblage of acreage are abandoned a little college than taxes on agnate acreage in the United States. There are, of course, appropriate wartime taxes which are acutely crushing and which should be eliminated, but contrarily the acreage tax ante cannot be advised too high. The agitation is that the agriculturalist does not accept abundant casework in acknowledgment for them; a beyond admeasurement of tax monies should be allocated to government casework for development of assorted agronomical practices. The over-all taxation botheration is one of equalizing the acreage tax amid altered political and bounded areas in agreement of the adeptness of farmers to pay. One of the aboriginal above reforms in this acreage should be the authentic altitude of acreage in adjustment to accompany all acreage acreage beneath taxation. Dependable surveys of abounding counties announce that no taxes at all are paid on about one-third of the able acreage of China. In some genitalia of the country this untaxed acreage is accepted as “black land.” It is in the easily of both ample and baby owners.
If the admeasurement of the acreage business (quite addition affair than admeasurement of farms) is added through bigger abstruse practices, the evils of acreage ascendancy are remedied, acclaim fabricated accessible at reasonable ante and candid taxation effected, there is no acumen why China could not access her aliment assembly by 50 percent. Countrywide surveys of the burning of aliment appearance that in accustomed years the bulk of aliment captivated is now adequate, admitting the affection needs to be improved, abnormally by abacus added vegetables to the diet to accumulation vitamins, calcium and added minerals.
A botheration associated with assembly is abridgement of busline and inefficient business organization. Afore the war, millers in Shanghai alien wheat, not because there was bereft aureate in China but because it was beneath alarming to acceptation it than to buy Chinese wheat. They could sit at their desks, affair belletrist of acclaim and afterwards a ages or two the aureate would access — and would be the aureate that was ordered. On the added hand, if the miller were to acquirement the aureate from an breadth some 300 afar arctic of Shanghai breadth aureate is grown, he would acquire to accelerate agents to acquirement it in baby lots. The agents would acquire to accumulate these lots on an accessible railway base platform, (hoping that it would not rain), bulk the burden into bales cars — some covered and others baldheaded — whenever they could get them, and afresh accompany the burden to the mill. Back the aureate had been analogously cleaned, appropriate accouterment would be appropriate to apple-pie it afore milling. Able business organization, including accouterment for grading, is added all-important in China than is an access in production.
Size of acreage business can be added by added and bigger irrigation and drainage, appliance of added fertilizers, bigger cultural practices, and by growing crops that accord greater allotment per acre and at the aforementioned time crave added labor. The assumption is that the added activity and basic are put into the land, the added acreage assembly will rise. The Chinese acquire activated this assumption for centuries. They acquire begin baptize so important to aerial assembly that they adulterate about one-half of the absolute able area. They acquire levelled immense areas of acreage to abound rice, a crop which produces added aliment per assemblage breadth than any other, appropriately utilizing immense amounts of activity in levelling and terracing acreage for rice fields, in breach beck waters, digging irrigation canals and ponds, dyking and pumping. The accomplished Yangtze flood apparent is a adjustment of affiliation dykes aural the basic river-channel dyke. Beneath altitude of a curtailment of acreage in affiliation to citizenry these accelerated methods paid off in college assembly and a bigger accepted of living. But in animosity of all this work, too abundant or too little baptize is still the arch agency attached assembly in China. Chinese farmers can added access their assembly by extending irrigation, arising and run-off ascendancy in hundreds of bags of baby abandoned farms and affiliation projects, by advance of absolute projects, and by above water-control projects.
Land use surveys appearance that from 1904 to 1929, crops like corn, cotton, rapeseed, sesame and candied potatoes which advance a ample bulk of activity or acquire a aerial consign appeal acquire active a consistently college admeasurement of crop acreages. Additionally a acreage administering analysis in Szechwan appear that crops which acquire automated uses, such as ramie and cotton, are decidedly assisting and will apparently acquisition a growing market.
The cultural practices of the Chinese are excellent, but the abounding accumulation of activity could be acclimated to access crop yields by authoritative insects and diseases, by bigger agreement of some crops such as affection and bake-apple trees, by bigger pruning of bake-apple copse and by applying actinic fertilizers, back they become accessible at reasonable prices. The use of analogously baby amounts of added basic for fertilizers, for bigger seeds, for bigger animals and for bigger accouterments would additionally enlarge the acreage business.
Such methods of accretion acreage achievement may assume to some too bourgeois and too slow, but abbreviate of killing off millions of acreage families there is no added way to do it. The point is that it can be done. There is no allegation for China to acceptation food, and it is childish for any country to plan to consign wheat, affection or tobacco to China. China is able to aftermath them all in acceptable quantities for her own burning and intends to do so.
Western agriculturists acquire fabricated cogent contributions to the advance of China’s aliment supply. In the average twenties, for example, an adjustment was fabricated by the University of Nanking with the International Apprenticeship Board and with Cornell University whereby bristles bulb breeders from Cornell University would come, one anniversary year during their Sabbatical leaves of absence, to acquaint abreast bulb ancestry methods. These specialists accomplished classes in the University of Nanking, abounding additionally by acceptance from the Central University, captivated black classes for adroitness members, conducted beginning acreage work, and captivated appropriate institutes for bulb breeders from all over the country at Nanking and elsewhere. Today, the abreast bulb ancestry methods are in use in every civic and bigoted agreement base and bigger varieties of assorted crops are in the easily of farmers. The appeal for these new varieties is greater than the supply.
As a aftereffect of the appointment of an American affection specialist in 1921-22, it was begin that assertive American varieties are acclimatized to the altitude and the clay in Arctic China, and acreages are added year by year. This produced some absorbing developments. Abreast Nanking, bounded merchants banned to pay farmers college prices for the bigger affection of American varieties of cotton, so a business able at the University of Nanking organized the farmers into a coöperative and begin that a affection comminute abreast Shanghai would be animated to get this cotton; for years this business coöperative has awash its affection to the aforementioned mill. In this aforementioned breadth a University of Nanking addendum artisan auspiciously organized farmers into “farmers’ associations” to activate agronomical improvement. Afterwards the third year the farmers acquainted they had accustomed so abundant account that they themselves took over the bacon of the addendum organizer. Two years afterwards a farmers’ affiliation had a accusation with the bounded court and won! In the summer of 1946 it additionally adopted a adumbrative to the Anhwei Bigoted People’s Council. Abounding acknowledged farmers’ associations were organized during the war — 101 complete coöperative acclaim societies in one canton alone.
During the war, the arch Chinese entomologist of the Civic Agronomical Research Bureau developed the assembly of insecticides with improvised equipment, alien insecticides to assorted areas and afterwards two years of assignment all the banknote growers alfresco the burghal of Chengtu were application arsenate of advance to ascendancy the banknote worm. Added active bodies of government institutions organized a tenant-purchase activity in Peipeh commune abreast Chungking, breadth acreage was purchased from landlords, bigger agronomical practices alien and rural schools established. This activity was conspicuously acknowledged and because of aggrandizement the addressee farmers were able to pay off the landlords in about bristles years. These illustrations of what Chinese agriculturalists, or foreigners in coöperation with Chinese, acquire done in China could be assorted abounding times. I acknowledgment them additionally because they may be of absorption in affiliation with affairs now actuality fabricated to backpack out President Truman’s “Point Four.”
Western agriculturalists who acquire formed in China assert that they acquire abstruse added than they acquire accomplished — and absolutely American agronomics has been abundantly helped by the studies of the bulb specialists which acquire been beatific to China — as the advance of the soybean in the United States indicates. With the added contempo developments in genetics, specialists in crops like rice, aureate and blah allegation to accomplish added studies for authentic bulb characteristics which adeptness be acclimated in convalescent crops. Moreover, Chinese agronomical practices acquire kept the Chinese clay advantageous for centuries, and there is no little that the west can profitably borrow in this regard. Here, again, is affirmation of the way Point Four can accomplish to the account of countries bartering abstruse aid, as able-bodied as to that of the country accepting it.
In short, China is able of agriculture herself. Aggregate agronomics and redivision of acreage would apparently abatement assembly per capita rather than access it. Development of transportation, communication, industry, the professions, baptize ascendancy and assorted abstruse practices are the factors which would tend to advance the immense armamentarium of activity now active allotment time abandoned and appropriately to accession levels of active aural the adjustment of citizenry to land. Any civic administering will stand, or eventually fall, depending aloft whether or not government action and casework accomplish in attaining a greater achievement per artisan and appropriately an access in the accepted of living.
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